『貳』 建築 英語怎麼說
[解釋]：architecture; building; build; erect for; construct; erect ; building; 1.to build; to construct; to erect; to put up; to set up 2.a building; a structure; an edifice; an erection 3.architecture ; amphiprostyle; architectural; architectural & instrial ceramics; architectural & instrial ceramics; building/construct; buildings; const; construct; construction; enneastylos; in the construction of
[參考詞典]：漢英綜合大詞典 漢英綜合科技大辭典 漢英綜合大詞典 漢英法學大詞典 漢英航海大詞典 漢英綜合大詞典
建築者 builder; constructor
建築證書 building certificate
建築執照 building permit; licence for the construction
建築紙 building paper
建築紙板 building paperboard; building paperboard; wallboard
建築中 under construction
建築周期 building cycle
建築軸線 building axis
建築柱式 architectural orders; architectural order; orders of ....
建築專家 building expert
建築磚 building brick
建築裝飾 architectural decoration; architectural ornament
建築准備 reserve for construction
建築資金 construction fund
Uniaxial stress–strain relationship of concrete confined by various shaped steel tubes
K.A.S. Susantha, Hanbin Ge, Tsutomu Usami *
Department of Civil Engineering, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan
Received 31 May 2000; received in revised form 19 December 2000; accepted 14 February 2001
A method is presented to predict the complete stress–strain curve of concrete subjected to triaxial compressive stresses caused by axial load plus lateral pressure e to the confinement action in circular, box and octagonal shaped concrete-filled steel tubes. Available empirical formulas are adopted to determine the lateral pressure exerted on concrete in circular concrete-filled steel columns. To evaluate the lateral pressure exerted on the concrete in box and octagonal shaped columns, FEM analysis is adopted with the help of a concrete–steel interaction model. Subsequently, an extensive parametric study is concted to propose an empirical
equation for the maximum average lateral pressure, which depends on the material and geometric properties of the columns. Lateral pressure so calculated is correlated to confined concrete strength through a well known empirical formula. For determination of the post-peak stress–strain relation, available experimental results are used. Based on the test results, approximated expressions to predict the slope of the descending branch and the strain at sustained concrete strength are derived for the confined concrete in columns having each type of sectional shapes. The predicted concrete strength and post-peak behavior are found to exhibit good
agreement with the test results within the accepted limits. The proposed model is intended to be used in fiber analysis involving beam–column elements in order to establish an ultimate state prediction criterion for concrete-filled steel columns designed as earthquake resisting structures. •2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Concrete-filled tubes; Confinement; Concrete strength; Ductility; Stress–strain relation; Fiber analysis
Concrete-filled steel tubes (CFT) are becoming increasingly popular in recent decades e to their excellent earthquake resisting characteristics such as high ctility and improved strength. As a result, numerous experimental investigations have been carried out in recent years to examine the overall performance of CFT columns [1–11]. Although the behavior of CFT columns has been extensively examined, the concrete core confinement is not yet well understood. Many of the previous research works have been mainly focused on investigating the performance of CFT columns with various limitations. The main variables subjected to such limitations were the concrete strength, plate width-to- thickness (or radius-to-thickness) ratios and shapes of the sections. Steel strength, column slenderness ratio and rate of loading were also additionally considered. It is understandable that examination of the effects of all the above factors on performances of CFTs in a wider range, exclusively on experimental manner, is difficult and costly. This can be overcome by following a suitable numerical theoretical approach which is capable of handling many experimentally unmanageable situations. At present, finite element analysis (FEM) is considered as the most powerful and accurate tool to simulate the actual behavior of structures. The accurate constitutive relationships for materials are essential for reliable results when such analysis proceres are involved. For example, CFT behavior may well be investigated through a suitable FEM analysis procere, provided that appropriate steel and concrete material models are available. One of the simplest yet powerful techniques for the examination of CFTs is fiber analysis. In this procere the cross section is discretized into many small regions where a uniaxial constitutive relationship of either concrete or steel is assigned. This type of analysis can be employed to predict the load–displacement relationships of CFT columns designed as earthquake resisting structures. The accuracy involved with the fiber analysis is found to be quite satisfactory with respect to the practical design purposes.
At present, an accurate stress–strain relationship for steel, which is readily applicable in the fiber analysis, is currently available . However, in the case of concrete, only a few models that are suited for such analysis can be found [3,8,9]. Among them, in Tomii and Sakino』s model , which is applicable to square shaped columns, the strength improvement e to confinement has been neglected. Tang et al.  developed a model for circular tubes by taking into account the effect of geometry and material properties on strength enhancement as well as the post-peak behavior. Watanabe et al.  concted model tests to determine a stress–strain relationship for confined concrete and subsequently proposed a method to analyze the ultimate behavior of concrete-filled box columns considering local buckling of component plates and initial imperfections. Among the other recent investigations, the work done by Schneider  investigated the effect of steel tube shape and wall thickness on the ultimate strength of the composite columns. El-Tawil and Deierlein  reviewed and evaluated the concrete encased composite design provisions of the American Concrete Institute Code (ACI 318) , the AISC-LRFD Specifications  and the AISC Seismic Provisions , based on fiber section analyses considering the inelastic behavior of steel and concrete.
In this study, an analytical approach based on the existing experimental results is attempted to determine a complete uniaxial stress–strain law for confined concrete in relatively thick-walled CFT columns. The primary objective of the proposed stress–strain model is its application in fiber analysis to investigate the inelastic behavior of CFT columns in compression or combined compression and bending. Such analyses are useful in establishing rational strength and ctility prediction proceres of seismic resisting structures. Three types of sectional shapes such as circular, box and octagonal are considered. A concrete–steel interaction model is employed to estimate the lateral pressure on concrete. Then, the maximum lateral pressure is correlated to the strength of confined concrete through an empirical formula. A method based on the results of fiber analysis using assumed concrete models is adopted to calibrate the post-peak behavior of the proposed model. Finally, the complete axial load–average axial strain curves obtained through the fiber analysis using the newly proposed material model are compared with the test results. It should be noted that a similar type of interaction model as used in this study has been adopted by Nishiyama et al. , which has been combined with a so called peak load condition line in order to determine the maximum lateral pressure on reinforced concrete columns.
Meanwhile, previous researches [17,18] indicate that the stress–strain relationship of concrete under compressive load histories proces an envelope curve identical to the stress–strain curve obtained under monotonic loading. Therefore, in further studies, the proposed confined uniaxial stress–strain law can be extended to a cyclic stress–strain relationship of confined concrete by including a suitable unloading/reloading stress–strain rule.
2. Theoretical background
2.1. Characteristic points on confined concrete stress–strain curve
Referring to Fig. 1（General stress–strain curves for confined and unconfined concrete.）, the following characteristic points have been identified to define a complete stress–strain curve when concrete is confined by surrounding steel tubes. The notation in the figure is as follows: f 』c is the strength of unconfined concrete; f 』cc is the strength of confined concrete; εc is the strain at the peak of unconfined concrete; εcc is the strain at the peak of confined concrete; εu is the ultimate strain of unconfined concrete; fu is the ultimate strength of unconfined concrete; εcu is the ultimate strain of confined concrete; and αf 』cc is the resial strength of confined concrete at very high strain levels. The expression for the complete stress–strain curve is defined as suggested by Popovics , which was later modified by Mander et al.  and given by where fc and ε denote the longitudinal compressive stress and strain, respectively; Ec stands for the tangent molus of elasticity of concrete. It should be noted that Eq. (1) has been defined even for the post-peak region, in this study, it is utilized only up to the peak point. The post-peak behavior is treated separately by assuming a linearly varied stress–strain relation as will be discussed in Section 4. 【1-4 Fig. 1】
2.2. Confinement action in circular CFT columns
In short CFT columns with relatively thick-walled sections designed for seismic purposes, failure is mainly caused e to concrete crushing. The mode of failure is governed by the indivial behavior of each component. The behavior of concrete in CFT columns under monotonically increasing axial load can be explained in terms of concrete–steel interaction. The confinement effect does not exist at the early stage of loading owing to the fact that the Poisson ratio of concrete is lower than that of steel at the initial loading stage. At this level of loading, the circumferential steel hoop stresses are in compression and the concrete is under lateral tension provided that no separation between concrete and steel occurs (i.e., the bond between two materials does not break). However, as the axial load increases, the lateral expansion of concrete graally becomes greater than the steel e to the change of the Poisson ratio of concrete, and therefore a radial pressure develops at the concrete– steel interface. At this stage, confinement of the concrete core is achieved and the steel is in hoop tension.
Load transferring from the steel tube to the concrete occurs at this stage. It is observed that the load at this stage is higher than the sum of loads that can be achieved by steel and concrete acting independently.
In the triaxial stress state the uniaxial compressive concrete strength can be given by 【5】 where frp is the maximum radial pressure on concrete and m is an empirical coefficient. In the past a lot of extensive experimental studies have been carried out to determine a value for coefficient m and it is found that for normal strength concrete, m is in the range of 4–6 . In this study m is assumed to be 4.0. The radial pressure, fr, can be expressed by the relationship given in Eq. (6), which is easily derived by considering the equilibrium of horizontal forces on a circular section: 【6】
Here, fsr, t and D denote the circumference stress in steel, the thickness and the outer diameter of the tube, respectively.
3. Evaluation of confinement in various shaped CFT columns
3.1. Circular section
Determination of the confinement level in circular tubes is found in the method proposed by Tang et al. . In this method, the change of the Poisson ratio of concrete and steel with column loading is investigated. An empirical factor, β, is introced for this purpose and subsequently the lateral pressure at the peak load is given by 【7】 Factor β is defined as 【8】 where νe and νs are the Poisson ratios of a steel tube with and without filled-in concrete, respectively. Here, νs is taken as equal to 0.50 at the maximum strength point, and νe is given by the following expressions: 【9 10】 Here, t, D and f 』c are the same as previously defined and fy stands for the yield stress of steel. The above equation is applicable for (f 』c/fy) ranging from 0.04 to 0.20 where most of the practically feasible columns are found within. A detailed description of the method can be found in Tang et al. . It is clear that frp given by Eq. (7) depends on both the material properties and the geometry of the column. Subsequently, frp calculated from Eq. (7) is substituted into Eq. (5) to determine the confined concrete strength, f 』cc.
K.A.S. Susantha ， Hanbin Ge, Tsutomu Usami*
土木工程學院，名古屋大學, Chikusa-ku ，名古屋 464-8603, 日本
收訖於2000年5月31日 ; 正式校定於2000年12月19日; 被認可於2001年2月14日
一種預測受三軸壓應力混凝土的完全應力-應變曲線的方法被提出，這種三軸壓應力是由環形、箱形和八角形的鋼管混凝土中的限製作用導致的軸向荷載加測向壓力所產生的。有效的經驗公式被用來確定施加於環形鋼管混凝土柱內混凝土的側向壓力。FEM（有限元）分析法和混凝土-鋼箍交互作用模型已被用來估計施加於箱形和八角形柱的混凝土側向壓力。接著，進行了廣泛的參數研究，旨在提出一個經驗公式，確定不同的筒材料和結構特性下的最大平均側向壓力。如此計算出的側向壓力通過一個著名經驗公式確定出側向受限混凝土強度。對於高峰之後的應力-應變關系的確定，使用了有效的試驗結果。基於這些測試結果，和近似表達式來推算下降段的斜度和各種斷面形狀的筒內側向受限混凝土在確認的混凝土強度下的應變。推算出的混凝土強度和後峰值性能在允許的界限內與測試結果吻合得非常好。所提出的模型可用於包括樑柱構件在內的纖維分析，以確定抗震結構設計中混凝土填充鋼柱筒的極限狀態的推算標准。 •版權所有2001 Elsevier科學技術有限公司。
1、讀音：英 [bɪld]，美 [bɪld]
That house is build of bricks.
1、讀音：英 ['bɪldɪŋ]，美 ['bɪldɪŋ]
The heat had blistered the paint of the building.
1、讀音：英 [ə'pɑːtmənt]，美 [ə'pɑːrtmənt]
I have an apartment in downtown Manhattan.
1、讀音：英 ['ɪnfrəstrʌktʃə(r)]，美 ['ɪnfrəstrʌktʃər]
We actively press ahead with the infrastructure development plan.
1、讀音：英 ['ɑːkɪtektʃə(r)]，美 ['ɑːrkɪtektʃər]
He obtained a diploma in architecture.
Edinburgh Castle is the symbol of the spirit of Edinburgh and even Scotland. It stands on the top of the extinct volcanic rocks and overlooks the city of Edinburgh.
Every August, a military band arrangement is held here, which shows the grandeur and grandeur of Edinburgh Castle.
No one who travels to Edinburgh will miss Edinburgh Castle, which can be seen from all corners of the city centre.
Edinburgh Castle became a royal castle in the 6th century, and Edinburgh Castle has since become an important royal residence and national administrative center.
Buckingham Palace is the principal dormitory and office of the British monarch in London.
Located in Westminster, the palace is one of the venues for national celebrations and royal welcoming ceremonies, as well as an important tourist attraction.
Buckingham Palace is also an important gathering place at a time of celebration or crisis in British history.
From 1703 to 1705, Buckingham Palace, a large town hall building, was built here by Buckingham and John Sheffield, Duke of Normanby, which constitutes the main building of today.
In 1761, George III acquired the mansion and served as a private dormitory.
Since then, the palace expansion project has lasted for more than 75 years, mainly presided over by architects John Nassy and Edward Broll, which constructed three-sided buildings for the central courtyard.
In 1837, Queen Victoria ascended the throne and Buckingham Palace became the official palace of the King of England.
At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, the public facade of the palace was built, forming the image of Buckingham Palace that continues today.
During World War II, the palace chapel was destroyed by a German bomb attack.
The Queen's Gallery on its site was opened to the public in 1962, displaying the Royal Collection.
Buckingham Palace is now open to visitors. Every morning, there will be a famous handover ceremony of the guards, which has become a great view of British Royal culture.
Elizabeth Tower, formerly known as Big Ben, is the Bell Tower of Westminster Palace, one of the world's famous Gothic buildings, the landmark building of London.
In June 2012, Britain announced the renaming of the Bell Tower of Big Ben, a famous landmark in London, as "Elizabeth Tower".
The tower of Elizabeth is a bell tower on the Thames River in London, England. It is one of the landmarks of London. The bell tower is 95 meters high, 7 meters in diameter and 13.5 tons in weight.
Every 15 minutes, the Westminster bell rings. Since the construction of the Jubilee Metro Line, the tower of Elizabeth has been affected. Measurements show that the tower tilts about half a meter northwest.
The tower of Elizabeth, built on April 10, 1858, is the largest clock in Britain. The tower is 320 feet tall and the minute needle is 14 feet long.
Elizabeth's tower is artificially wound. During congressional meetings, the clock shines every hour.
Every year, when the time changes between summer and winter, the clock will stop and repair, exchange parts, and adjust the tone of the clock.
Westminster Palace, also known as the House of Parliament, is the seat of the British Parliament.
Westminster Palace is one of the representative works of Gothic Renaissance Architecture, which was listed as World Cultural Heritage in 1987.
The building consists of about 1,100 separate rooms, 100 stairs and 4.8 kilometers of corridors.
Although today's palaces were basically rebuilt in the 19th century, many of the original historical relics, such as the Westminster Hall, are still preserved.
Today they are used for major public ceremonies, such as pre-funeral displays.
London Eye, situated on the Thames River in London, UK, is the world's first and largest Ferris wheel for sightseeing up to 2005. It is one of London's landmarks and famous tourist attractions.
The London Eye is built to celebrate the new millennium, so it is also called the Millennium Ferris Wheel. Passengers can take the London Eye to get a bird's eye view of London.
The London Eye becomes a huge blue halo at night, which greatly adds to the dreamlike temperament of the Thames River.
The London Eye also lights up the 2015 British general election, with the red light representing the British Labour Party, the blue representing the Conservative Party.
the purple representing the British Independent Party, and the Yellow representing the Liberal Democratic Party.
CAD 中英文詞彙對照表 (本貼附件未含)
英漢化學圖解詞彙 （34塊） chijiaowang（大多(本貼附件未含)）
鍛壓直角扣 Forging rectangular buckle
電鍍出廠含稅價（元/套） Electroplating factory tax Price (Yuan / set)
鍛造旋轉扣 Forging rotary buckle
懸梁扣件 Cantilever fastener
豬耳扣件 Fournieri fastener
固板扣 Solid plate buckle
油漆價格 Paint price
鍍鋅價格 Zinc prices
雜木 undesirable tree
楊木 cotton wood
連接棒 Connecting rod
梯形腳手架 Ladder Scaffolding
門型腳手架 Door-type scaffolding
building, edifice, structure這三個詞的共同意思是「建築物」。
Houses and churches are buildings.
The cathedral is a handsome edifice.
The new library is a fireproof structure.